Wel ende edelike spijse (Good and Noble Food)
Introduction to the edition of manuscript Gent UB 1035
Glossary

This is the glossary to the diplomatic edition of the fifteenth-century Middle Dutch cookery book Wel ende edelike spijse, ms. UB Gent 1035. It is also an index to the cookery book, the numbers following the entries refer to the recipes in the edition in which the lemma is used. If anyone has suggestions or corrections, or misses something in this glossary, please let me know.

The glossary is Middle Dutch - English. I hope that Dutch people who are interested in medieval cookbooks will have no problems with this. They can always look at the translation in modern Dutch that runs parallel with the edition.

The order of the entries is a little different from the usual alphabetical order.

  • The letters 'c' and 'k' at the beginning of a word are treated as one and can be found under 'c'
  • The letters 'i' and 'j' at the beginning of a word are treated as one and can be found under 'i'.
  • The letters 'y' and 'ij' are treated as one. In Dutch, the combination 'ij' is a diphthong, alphabetically ordered under 'i'. Although 'ij' is not identical to 'y',  in medieval manuscripts 'y' and 'ij' seem to be interchangeable, and sometimes it is very hard to discern between the two in writing (although in this manuscript the difference was clear).
  • Words starting with 'y' and 'ij' can be found under 'i/j/y'. (see supra)
  • The letters 'u' and 'v' at the beginning of a word are treated as one and can be found under 'u'.
  • The letters 's' and 'z' at the beginning of a word are treated as one and can be found under 's'.

A  B  C/K  D  E  F  G  H  I/J/Y  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S/Z  T  U/V  W

-A-

agrette - n: * 'verjuice' From old french 'aigret'. 2.14

amandelen (pl), ammandelen (pl) - n: 'almonds' 1.23, 1.26, 2.4, 2.7, 2.11, 2.28

amandelmeel - n: 'powdered almonds' 2.4

amandelen melke, amandelen melc, amandel melc, amandel melke - n: 'almonds milk' 1.14, 1.16, 1.17, 1.23, 1.26, 2.4, 2.7, 2.11, 2.24

amandeleyt - n, dish: Thick porridge(?) made with ground almonds. 1.14, 1.content

amidom, amidoms - n: 'amylum' 1.28

amig van Alexandre - n, spice: 'ajowan', 'Ethiopian cumin' Seed of Trachyspermum ammi. 1.33

amiroen, amyroen - n, dish: * According to MNW variant of amidom, 'amylum'. amiroen inden pot gemaect - 'meal pap' Made with almond milk instead of milk. 2.24, 2.content

anguwissen - n, fruit: 'anguisse pear' A pear variety. 1.15

anijs - n, herb: 'aniseed' 1.15 

appel, appelen -  n, fruit: 'apple' 1.3, 1.6, 1.16, 1.content

appelmoes - n, preparation: 'applesauce' 1.16, 1.content

asijns, asyne - n: 'vinegar' 1.32, 2.16 wijnasijne, wijn asijn, wijn asyne - 'wine vinegar' 1.15, 1.26, 1.31, 2.12, 2.20, 2.28

-B-

backen- vb: 'to bake' In fat. 1.18

baers, baerse, baersse, baersen, baerssen - n 1.  seafish: 'seabass' 1.19 2. freshwater fish: 'perch' 3. 'perch' or 'bass' Unable to determine which of the two is meant. 2.10, 2.11, 2.content

bake - n, meat: 'side of bacon' 2.18

barghin, barghijn - adj: 'from a pig' 1.1 barghin vleesch: 'pork' 1.3, 2.3 barghijn smout, barghijn smoute - 'pork fat' 2.4, 2.5 

been - n, part oa animal: 'foot', 'leg' 1.9 

benden - vb: 'to bend' 1.20

bereeden - vb: 'to prepare' 2.17

bernen - vb: 'to burn', 'to scorch' 2.11

bestroyen (bestrooyt) - vb: 'to sprinkle' 1.30, 2.4

binden (gebonden) - vb: 'to thicken' A sauce or gruel. 2.20, 2.24

bindet ... vast - vastbinden

blancmengier, blamengiere - n, dish: 'blancmanger' A light coloured sauce or thick porridge, thickened with almonds or almond milk. 2.4 With fish. 2.11, 2.content

blasen, blaesen - vb: 'to blow' Between skin and meat.  2.13

blat, bladeren (pl) - n: 1. 'slice' 1.6 2. 'sheet' Of dough. 1.19, 1.22, 2.2

bloemmen, bloemme-  n: 'fine wheat flour'  1.20, 1.21, 1.29

bongnette - n, dish: 'fritter' Small deep fried pastry. 1.3, 2.1, 2.2

borne - n: 'spring water' As opposed to rain water. 2.18

botere, botre, bueter - n: 1. 'butter' 2.18 2. 'almond butter' 1.26

braden, braeden (gebraden) - vb: 'to roast', 'to fry', 'to grill' 1.11, 1.12, 1.19, 1.24, 1.28, 2.3, 2.9, 2.13, 2.18, 2.20, 2.23, 2.29

breden - vb: 'to spread out' 1.25 

broeyen - vb: 'to scald' To pour hot water over a slaughtered animal to facilitate the removal of bristles or feathers. 2.13

brood, broot, broode - n: 'bread' 1.11, 1.24 As thickener. 1.2, 1.8, 2.7, 2.10, 2.12, 2.15, 2.16, 2.19, 2.20, 2.29 wittebrood, witte broode, witte broods- 'white bread' 1.14, 1.17, 2.14, 2.17, 2.22

broum - n: 'scum' 1.25

bruwet, bruwette - n: 'boiling liquid' 1.7, 1.9, 2.19, 2.22, 2.27

bueter - boter

buke- n, part oa animal: 'belly' 1.28

-C/K-

cabelyauwe, cabbelyauwe - n, fish: 'cod' Seafish. 1.16, 1.27

Cabuse coolen - n, vegetable: 'white cabbage' 1.15

kaes, kase - case

caesvat - n, kitchenware: 'cheese mould' 1.26

cameline - adj: sausse cameline Name of a sauce, often with cinnamon, but here without cinnamon, for hare. 2.16

caneele, caneels - n, spice: 'cinnamon' 1.7, 1.9 , 1.151.20, 1.23, 1.32, 1.33, 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 2.12, 2.13, 2.23

capoen, capoene - n, poultry: 'capon', 'castrated cock fowl' Cocks were castrated to fatten them up for eating.  1.21.10, 1.content, 2.4, 2.5, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 2.content

cappen - vb: 'to chop in small pieces' 1.2, 1.3 , 1.17, 1.19, 1.20, 2.2, 2.9, 2.13, 2.29

case, kaes - n: 1. 'cheese' 2. 'almond "cheese"' 1.26  case van gauy, kase de gein - 'Gouda cheese' 1.21, 1.content, 2.2 murwen case- 'fresh cheese' 2.26

kelongie - joute kelongie

kensenruwelen (pl) - n, fruit: * A pear variety (? v. anguwissen). 1.15     

kernel, kernellen (pl )- n, part oa fruit: 'pip' 1.15

keruen - vb: 'to cut into', 'to carve' 1.24

ketele - n, kitchenware: 'kettle', 'cauldron' Of metal. 2.25

chiueye - n, dish: Name of a sauce for bass or perch with cumin and verjuice. In the list of recipes at the end of chapter 2, this sauce is called "seueye". 2.10

kiekene (pl) - n, poultry: 'chick' 2.13, 2.content

clareyt-  n: 'spiced wine' Of red or white wine. 1.33, 1.content

cleden - vb: 'to cover', 'to coat' 2.5

cleen, clene - adj/adv: 'small', 'finely' (passim)

cleenlike - adv: 'sparingly' 1.26

cleet - n, kitchenware: 'cloth' 1.11

coelen - vercoelen

commijne, commineyen - n, dish: * A sauce made with cumin, 2.7, 2.20, 2.content but sometimes without cumin. 1.8

compost - n, dish: 'stew', 'fare' An eatable mass cooked to a pulp or mashed (says WNT). 1.15, 1.content

comijn, commijn, commyne, comine - n, spice: 'cumin' 2.7, 2.10, 2.20, 2.content

cool - n, vegetable: 'cabbage' Cabuse coolen 1.15

cop - n: litt. 'bowl', 'shape of  pastry' 1.10

corduijn - n: * Ūnnards'? , 2.12

corsten - n: 'crust' Of bread. 1.17

couck - n: 'cake', biscuit'  coucken in de panne - 'pancakes' 1.3  coukelkins - 'cookies' 1.21

cranen - n, poultry: 'crane' 1.12, 1.content

crauwelkin - n, kitchenware: 'small fork' With two or three prongs.  1.6

crevetse, creuetsen - n, crustacean: 'lobster' or 'crayfish' 1.3, 1.4, 1.content

crickelsteenen (pl) - n, fruit: 'cherries' Maybe a variety (MNW 'cherry stones', but kernellen van crickelsteenen would then mean 'stones of cherry stones'). 1.15

cruden (ghecruut) - vb: 'to season', 'to add spices' 1.12

cruud, cruut, crude, cruden - n: 'ground spices' 1.3 , 1.16, 1.19, 1.27, 1.33, 2.27

cruyme, crume, cruymen - n: 'crumbs' Of a certain amount of bread. 2.14, 2.15, 2.17, 2.19, 2.20, 2.22

cueruelkin - n, kitchenware: 'small basket' 1.26

-D-

dachterste - dachterste dien

dadel - n, fruit: 'date' 1.15

decken - vb: 'to cover' 1.11

deech, deege, deegh, deeghe - n: 'dough' 1.51.10, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.24, 1.28, 1.content, 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 2.21, 2.26 pipesen deege - 'dough made with cheese' 2.2

deesemen - vb: 'to knead' 1.20, 1.25

deyeren - eyeren

dicke - adj: 'thick', 'viscous' 1.17

dickent - adv: 'often' 1.16

dien (pl)- n, part oa animal: litt. 'thigh' 2.13 dachterste dien - 'the hindquarters', 'ham' 1.25

doder, dodere (pl), doderen (pl) - n: 'yolk' Of an egg. 1.1, 1.21.20, 1.25, 1.29, 2.9, 2.23, 2.25, 2.26, 2.29

doreren - vb: 1. 'to guild', 'to colour golden yellow' For example by basting with raw eggyolks with or without saffron before roasting. 1.20, 1.24 2. 'to roast to a golden brown colour' 2.3 

dragye , dragie - n, spice: 'sugared spices' Like aniseed comfits (JSvW) (in The Netherlands traditionally served at the birth of a baby). These were also served after a meal with spiced wine (JSMW). 1.31.10, 1.19, 1.28, 2.2, 2.25

droogen - adj: 'dried' 1.13 

droopen - vb: 'to baste' 1.4 , 1.19

druven van rosinen - expr, fruit: 'bunches of grapes' (MNW compare french grappe de raisins)? 1.1.: 'grapes' In a summer sauce.

duuen (pl) - n, poultry: 'pidgeons' 2.21, 2.inhoud

dwaen - vb: 'to wash' 1.7, 1.25, 2.12, 2.23

dwale - n, kitchenware: 'cloth' 1.11, 1.26

dweers - adv: 'crosswise' 1.24

dwitte - n: 'the white'

dynne - adj: 1. 'thin' 1.6, 1.22, 2.27 2. 'liquid', 'fluid' 1.5, 2.1, 2.2

-E-

edelen - adj: 'excellent' 1.content

eerdinen - adj: 'earthenware' 1.7

eeuere - n, animal: 'wild boar' 1.24

el niet - frase: 'nothing else' 1.11 

enjuin, enjuun, enjune, enjunen (pl) - n, vegetable: 'onion' 1.13, 2.7, 2.16, 2.inhoud

eten, heten, heeten - vb: 'to eat' 1.12, 1.22, 2.9, 2.16, 2.19, 2.22

eye, eyers (pl), eyeren (pl), eyere (pl) - n: 'eggs' 1.5, 1.8, 1.20, 1.21, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.inhoud, 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 2.6, 2.13, 2.27, 2.29, 2.inhoud dodere van eyeren (with spelling variations) - 'egg yolks' 1.1, 1.2, 1.20, 1.25,1.29, 2.9, 2.23, 2.25, 2.26, 2.29 dwitte van eyeren (with spelling variations) - 'egg whitest' 2.62.29 

-F-

faersel, faersele, farsueren - vaersel

faysant, faysanten (pl) - n, poultry: 'pheasant' 1.12, 1.content

flasteye, flaestrie - adj, dish: * Name of a sauce for partridges. 1.23, 1.content

fruture, frutuere - n: * Food packed in dough, which has been fried in boiling fat (WNT). Of the recipes directly following the subtitle only recipe 1.27 fits this description. Subtitle, 1.content, 2.26

frijten, fruuten (gefrijt, gefruut) - vb: 'to fry in fat' 1.2 , 1.13, 1.15, 2.4, 2.11, 2.16, 2.29

-G-
g = gh

galentine - n, dish: According to MNW "fish or meat in jelly". In the recipe for this galentine for fish no thickening agent is mentioned. Maybe the use of a thickener was common knowledge, and needed no mentioning. 1.31, 1.content

galligaen, galligaens - n, spice: 'galingale' Resembles gingerroot. 1.32

ghans, gansse, *gantes (pl), gansen (pl) - n, poultry: 'goose' Is eaten from April 25 until December 25. 1.12, 1.29, 1.content, 2.14, 2.21, 2.inhoud

gansellieden (pl) - n, poultry: * 'geeselings'(?) 1.29

ganselzie, ganselgie, gansselgiede - n, dish: * Originally a sauce for goose, later also for other meat. 1.29, 2.inhoud ganselgie dat men heet edel looc 2.28

gauy - case van gauy

gebonden - binden

ghecapt, gecapt - cappen 

ghecruud - cruden

gheel - gheheel 1.2     

ghefrijt, gefruut - frijten

gefroyseert, gefroygiert - 'broken', 'crushed' Because this meaning does not fit in the recipe for stuffed capon, this mau be an error in writing for gevaerst- 'stuffed'. 2.27, 2.inhoud

gheheel, gheel - adj/adv: 'whole', 'entire', 'entirely' 1.2, 1.11, 2.4 

gheheeten - eten

ghekelongiert, gekelangiert - vb/adj: 'whisked', 'mashed' MNW clonen flemish dialect means 'to beat' 1.13, 1.content 

geleye, gyleye - n, dish: * 'jelly' Made of fish- or meat stock that will jellify when cooled because of the fishbones and scales 1.7, 1.content or meat bones. 1.9, 1.content

ghenouch - adv/nm: 'enough', 'sufficiently'

gepelt - pellen

ghepuerert - vb/adj: 'strained' Litt. 'purified' 1.13 

gesaudeert - sauderen

ghescerft - scerven

ghescuymt - scuymen

gheslegen - slaen

ghesneden- snijden

ghesoden, ghezoden, gezoden, gesoden- zieden

ghetempert - temperen

getiert - tieren

gevaerst, ghevaerst - vaersen

geueyen - * In recipe 1.2 the sauce is called "groender soueyen". A sauce with bread, hardboiled egg yolks and whites. 1.content witter geueye 2.29, 2.inhoud

ghewreuen - wriven

ghewronghen - vut wringen

ghewijnt - vb/adj: * 'with wine' wel ghewijnt, 'with a lot of wine' 1.12

ginghebare, ghingebare, ghinghebare, ghingebaers, gingebaers - n, spice: ginger 1.7, 1.9 , 1.15, 1.20, 1.23, 1.32, 1.33, 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.12, 2.13, 2.16, 2.23, 2.29

graen - n: 'grain', 'kernel' 1.17

groender, groenen - adj: 'green' 1.2, 2.9, 2.14

groene, tgheroone, tgroene - n, vegetable: 'greens' 2.15, 2.inhoud

ghyse - n: * 'likeness' 1.28

gyleye - geleye

-H-

haest - * Error in writing for hooft or harst. tecipe 1.24 has "thooft vanden eeuere". 1.content

halse, hals - n, part oa animal: ''neck' 1.11, 1.20

harinc - n, fish: 'herring' 1.13 

harst - n, part oa animal: 'roast' v. haest

hase - n, animal: 'hare' 2.16, 2.inhoud

hauwen - vb: 'to chop' 1.25

hecten - vb: 'to fix', 'to attach' 1.6

heect - n, fish: * 'pike'  Freshwater fish. 1.content

heet - adj: 'hot' 1.12 2. vb: eten 1.22, 1.29, 2.9, 2.12, 2.13

herten (pl) - n, animal: 'deer' 2.8

herten - vb: 'to stick' (a pig) 2.12

hertin - adj: 'of a deer' Or plural of "hert", herten. 2.inhoud

heten - vb: 1. eten 1.22, 1.29, 2.9, 2.12, 2.13 2. 'to be called' 2.28

heygers - Error in writing for reygers.

hoen, hoene, hoendre (pl) - n, poultry: 'hen', 'chicken' 1.3, 2.27

hoerendreete - n, dish: 'whore's wind' Comical name for a kind of choux pastry. 2.1, 2.content

hooc - adv: 'too', 'also' 1.7 

hooft, hoofde - n, part oa animal: 'head' 1.11, 1.20, 1.24

houckine - n, animal: 'ram or he-goat' 2.9, 2.content

hout - out

houten - adj: 'wooden' 1.6, 1.9 , 1.19

hu - prn: 'your'

huenich, huonich - n: 'honey' 1.22

huut - n, part oa animal: 'skin' Of meat, 1.4 or fish. 1.7, 2.18

huut, hute - uut 1.25, 1.28, 2.12

huutsen - vb: 'to hussle', 'to stir' 1.16

hynden (pl) - n, animal: 'hinds' Female deer. 2.8

-I/J-
ij = y

ydelen - vb: 'to empty' 1.5

yserin - adj: 'iron' 1.6

joute kelongie - * Name of a vegetable dish. 1.content

(K see C)

-L-

laerderen, lartderen, larderen (gelaerdeert) - vb: 'to lard', To introduce thin strips of pork fat into meat or to cover with strips of lard. 1.11, 1.12, 2.3, 2.8, 2.16, 2.20

laerdeyt - n, dish: * Name of a dish with boiled, ground, boiled again and finally larded and roast pork. 2.3, 2.inhoud

laert, laerds - n, meat: 'bacon' 2.8, 2.9, 2.21

lammere (pl), lammeren (pl) - n, animal: 'lambs' 2.9, 2.content

lanx - adv: 'lengthwise' 1.24, 2.6

lecker, leckers - n: 'gourmet', 'foodie' 2.23, 2.content

lemmoegen (pl) - n, poultry: 'pheasant' 1.12

leple, lepel, lepele - n: 'spoon' Quantity. 1.26, 2.23, 2.25, 2.28

lettel - adv: 'little', 'bit' (passim)

leuere - n, offal: 'liver' In this text always of a fish. 1.16, 1.19, 2.17

lichame - n: 'body' 1.11, 2.27

liden - vb: 'to pass through' A sieve. 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.23, 2.16, 2.20

liese - n, part oa animal: 'caul' Peritoneum. 1.25

loesengen (pl), loezengen (p) - n: * 'lozenges', pastilles' Diamond shaped sweets. 1.22, 1.content 

lombardien - n, proper name: 'Lombardy' Region in the North of Italy, extended to the whole of Italy. taerten van lombaerdien

looc, looke - n 1. herb: 'garlic' 2.14, 2.17 2. dish: 'garlic sauce' 2.17 groenen looke - Green sauce with sorrel and garlic. 2.14 edel looc - Sauce with almonds and saffron. Garlic is not mentioned, but maybe implicated in the name of the sauce. 2.28

lijnwaet - n: 'linen cloth' 2.25

-M-

magher - adj: 'lean' 2.3

malen (gemalen) - vb: 'to grind' 2.10

mastic - n, spice: 'fragant resin of the mastic tree' 1.33

matten - n: 'food' The MNW remarks at this meaning of the keyword "mat" that it is not certain that a noun with this meaning ever existed in Middle Dutch. This text seems to me proof that is did exist. 1.26

meel, mele - n: 'flour' wit meel, wit mele- 'white wheat flour' 1.18, 1.21, 2.2

melk, melke, melc - n: 1. 'milk' 1.8, 1.22, 1.29, 2.6, 2.23 2. 'almond milk' amandelen melke 1.26 melc van rijse- rijs melke See also: scapin melc

mingen, mingelen - vb: 'to mix' 1.15, 1.26

moelgen, moelgon - n, dish: 'tasty titbit' In MNW only the variant "moelie", but mention of "molge" and "mulge" as Middle Low German variants.  2.25, 2.content

mortier - n, kitchenware: 'mortar' 1.31.7, 1.27, 1.28, 1.33, 2.11

mortroel - n, name oa dish: Porridge of almonds and bread, probably derived from 'mortarium' or 'mortier' (mortar) CI p.58 . 1.17, 1.content

mostaerde - n: 'mustard' 1.15

muerwen - adj: 'tender', 'soft' 2.17

murzele -  n, kitchenware: * 'mortar' 1.9

-N-

nagel, nagle, naglen (pl) - n 1. spice: 'clove' 1.15, 1.32, 1.33, 2.12 2. part oe animal: 'nail', 'claw'  1.4 

nagelkin, nagelkins (pl), nagelkine - n, spice: 'clove' Diminutive of nagel. 1.7, 1.9 , 1.20, 2.13

nap - n, kitchen- or tableware: 'drinking bowl', 'drinking cup' 2.15

-O-

olyen - n, cooking fat: 'oil' 1.22

onghequetst - adj: 'unblemished' 1.6

onsse, onssen, onse - n, measure: 'ounce' this was 1/16 part of a pont, almost 27 gram (VH), a bit less than the modern ounce (which is 28,35 gram). 1.31, 1.32, 1.33

ontkeeren - vb: 'to spoil'

out - adj: 'old' 1.33

-P-

paeldinc - n, fish: 'eel' 2.19, 2.content

paeu, paeuw, pauwen - n, poultry: 'peacock' 1.11, 1.content

panne - n, kitchenware: 'pan', casserole' 1.22, 1.26, 2.15, 2.28

pareidenloke - n, vegetable: 'leek' 1.13 

partrijse, pertrijse, partrisen(pl), pertricen (pl), pertrijsen (pl), pertriten (pl) - n, poultry: 'partridge' 1.23, 1.28, 1.content, 2.20, 2.content

pastey, pasteyen - n, dish: 'pasty', 'pie', A cup made of dough, filled and baked in the oven. 1.10, 2.2, 2.content

pedercelle - petercellen

pelle - n, part oe fruit: 'skin', 'rind', 'peel' 1.6

pellen (gepelt) - vb: 'to peel' Fruit, nuts and eggs. 1.16, 2.6, 2.28

pentenine - n, name oa sauce: Serrure amended this in petuinne. This could mean sauce 'Poitevin'. 1.15

peper, pepre, pepers, pepere - n, spice: 1. 'black pepper' Whole or ground. 1.2, 1.3, 1.13, 1.20, 1.25, 1.31, 2.5, 2.12, 2.13, 2.15, 2.16, 2.19, 2.20, 2.23, 2.27  2. peper, pepere- dish: 'pepper sauce' A mostly dark coloured, heavily spiced sauce. 1.12, 1.32, 1.content, 2.12, 2.18, 2.content bruijn pepere- 'brown pepper sauce' 2.21

pertrijse, pertricen, pertriten - partrijse

petercellen, pedercelle - n, herb: 'parsley' 1.2, 1.15, 2.9, 2.15, 2.19

peteuinne - pentenine

pipefarsen - n, dish: * 'stuffed pipes' 1.content

pipes, pipesen - pypes

platteel, platteele - n, tableware: 'plate', 'flat dish' Earthenware dish JSvW. 1.9 , 1.16, 1.26, 2.5, 2.10

pluymen - vb: 'pluck', 'deplume' 1.11

pluymen - n, part oa animal: 'feathers' 1.11

pochieren, pocheren (gepochiert) - vb: 'to [poach' 1.8, 1.25, 1.content

poelge, poelgen - n, poultry: 'young chicken' 1.1, 1.3, 1.content

polioene, polioens, polyoene - n, herb: 'pennyroyal' A variety of mint. 2.22, 2.content

pont - n, measure: 'pound' This is 430 gram (Pound of Gent, VH) or a bit less than the English pound (lb), which is 454 gram). 1.23, 1.31

pot, potte - n, kitchenware: 'pot', 'saucepan' 1.1, 1.14, 1.16, 2.4, 2.11, 2.22, 2.24, 2.25, 2.contenteerdinen pot - 'earthenware pot' 1.7

poudere - n: 'powder' 1.33, 2.23

pouderen, poudoren - vb: 1. 'sprinkle with ground spices' Litt. 'grind to powder'. 1.16, 1.24 2. 'to sprinkle' 1.27, 2.12, 2.23

pricken - n, fish: 'lamprey' There are salt and freshwater lampreys. 1.31, 1.content

prieme, priem - n, kitchenware: 'piercer', 'awl' 1.11, 1.28 houten priem - 'wooden piercer' 1.24, 2.3 priemken - 'small piercer' 1.25 houten priemkens, priemken van houte - 'small wooden piercer(s)' 1.19, 1.28

pynneke - n, kitchenware: 'small pin', 'small stick' 1.6

pype - n: 'leafstalk'?, 'peppermint (the candy)' ? meaning not clear. 1.33 

pypes, pipes, pipesen, pypesen - n, dish: 1. 'pipes' Long, hollow biscuits. 1.21, 1.content, 2.2 2. * Name of a dish of capon in pieces with chopped meat and hardboiled eggs packed in dough and fried. 2.5, 2.content

-Q-

quaerten - n, measure: According to MNW two pints, i.e. 1,17 litre or a bit more than 4 1/2 cup (1,125 litre). 1.32

-R-

rasspeyte, raspeyte - n, dish: * Name for a sauce with grapes for young chicken in the summer. Maybe from Oldfrench 'raspure' (pitted grape)?. 1.1, 1.content

rau, rauwe - rou 

rechten - vb: 'to dress' A dish. 2.29

reene - adj: 'clean', 'cleansed' 1.15

reyger - n, poultry: 'heron' 1.12

roede - n, part oa animal: 'penis' 2.23, 2.content

roffioele, roffioelen (pl) - n, dish: 'small filled pasty' Like the Spanish empanadilla(?) 1.3, 1.27, 1.content Meatballs in sheep's caul. 1.25

ronden - vb: 'to make round' 1.19

roomen - vb: 'to curdle' The MNW cites this recipe for the meaning 'to seperate the cream'. When a sour medium like wine vinegar is added to milk (and apparently also almond milk), the milk will curdle. 1.26

roosten - vb: 'to roast' (on a grid) 1.4

roostere - n, kitchenware: 'gridiron' 1.19

root - adj: 'brown' From baking. 1.25

rosijnen - n, fruit: 'grape', 'raisin' rosijnen van ouerzee- 'raisins' 1.17

rou, rau, rauwe - adj: 'raw' 1.25, 1.28, 2.8, 2.13

roudet - Error in writing for rondet- ronden

rugghen - n, part oa fish: 'fillet' From the back. 1.18

rusoles (pl) - n, dish: * 'rissoles' Small dish of stuffed pastry or crÍpes, synonym to roffioelen. 1.content

ruymen - vb: 'to scoop'out'  1.6

rijs melke, melc van rijse - n: '* 'rice milk' Not certain what is meant. The WNT has 'rijstepap' (ricepudding). Maybe the liquid in which rice was steeped or boiled was meant? 2.4, 2.11

rijvissce - n, fish: 'bass' Seafish. 1.27

-S/Z-
sc = sch

sackelkyn - n, kitchenware: 'small sack' A cornet of cloth. The spices were put in the point, the wine was poured over the spices. 1.33

saelye - n, herb: 'sage' 2.15

salm, salmen - n, fish: 'salmon' 1.13, 1.19, 1.28

zalmen - 'zal men' = ' shall one' And not 'salmon'! 2.17

sap - sop

sauderen (gesaudeert) - vb: 'to fix' 1.19

sausse, saussen, sause - n, a dish: 'sauce' 1.15, 1.23, 1.content, 2.9, 2.16

saysoen - n: 'season' 1.content

scape - n, animal: 'sheep' 1.25

scapin - adj: 'of a sheep' scapin roede- 'sheep's penis' 2.23, 2.content scapin melc- 'sheep milk' 2.25

schelle - n, part oe animal: '(fish) scale' 1.7

schelvissche - n, fish: 'haddock' Seafish. 1.16

scerven (gescerft) - vb: 'to chop up' 1.13 

scouden - vb: 'to scald' To pour hot water over a slaughtered animal to facilitate the removal of bristles or feathers, 2.12 or the skin of a fish. 2.18

scouder, scouderen - n, part oa animal: 'shoulder' 1.11, 1.20 

scuetele, scuetelen, schotelen, scotelen - n, tableware: 'dish' 1.2, 1.30, 2.2, 2.25, 2.content

scuymen (gescuymt) - vb: 'to skim off' 1.15

zeem - n: 'honey' Especially honey which has run spontaneously out of the honeycomb without being pressed, virgin honey. 1.15

zeevisch - n: 'seafish' 1.19, 2.17, 2.content

sefers - eeuere

zenuwe - n, part oa animal: 'sinew', tendon' 1.9

settet ... off - 'pull it off the fire', 2.24, 2.27

seueye - n, dish: Name of a sauce for bass or perch. In MNW this is an onion sauce, but no onions are used in this recipe. In the recipe itself the sauce is called "chiueye". 2.inhoud 

sextier - n, measure: * 'around 46,8 litre', 'around 10,3 gallon (UK)' According to VH equals one "sextier" 40 "mengel", one "mengel" equals a half "stoop", one "stoop" equals 1/16 "anker". one "anker" equals a quarter "aam", and at last, the keyword "aam" gives the equivalent in metric measurement: one "aam" is circa 150 liter. 1.33

sieden, zieden (gezoden, gesoden) - vb: 'to boil' In a liquid, also in liquid fat (passim) zieden in eenen wal- 'to bring to the boil once', 'to blanch' 2.23

slaen (gheslegen) - vb: 1. 'to beat' Eggs. 2.1, 2.2, 2.6 2. 'to chop' 2.9

smout, smoute, smouts - n, cooking fat: 'animal or vegetable cooking fat or oil' 1.4, 1.6, 1.12, 1.22, 2.2, 2.16, 2.18, 2.26, 2.29 wallende smout - 'boiling fat' 1.10, 1.18, 2.1, 2.6 smout vanden scape - 'sheep fat' 1.25 barghijn smout, barghin smout - 'pork fat' 1.1, 2.4 witten barghijn smoute - 'white pork fat' 2.5 wit smout - 'white fat' 2.28 

snouk, snouken - n, fish: 'pike' Freshwater fish. 1.7, 1.10, 1.18, 1.27

snijden (gesneden) - vb: 'to cut' 1.4,1.6, 1.7, 1.10, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.20, 1.22, 2.8

snijdende - adj: 'sharp' 1.6

zoetelike - adv: 'moderately' 1.7

zoeten - zoeten watre

soffraen, sofraen, soffrane - n, spice: 'saffron'  1.31.7, 1.8, 1.9 , 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.20, 1.23, 1.27, 1.29, 1.31, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.19, 2.20, 2.23, 2.25, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29

sop, sope, sap, zope - n, liquid: 'liquid', 'juice' 1.13, 2.14, 2.19

sout, zout, zoute - n, spice: 'salt' 1.3 , 1.13, 2.13

souten, zouten - vb: 'to salt' 1.7, 1.8, 1.27, 2.7

soveyen - n, dish: According to MNW the name for a green sauce with parsley for capon (with this recipe as the sole location). But in the list of recipes at the end of the first chapter this recipe is called geueyen, as is the very similar recipe 2.29 . ""soveyen" could be an error in writing. 1.2

speten - vb: 'to put on a spit' 1.11 

spit - n, kitchenware: 'roasting-spit' 1.24, 1.28

spouwen - vb: 'to fillet', 'to cut open' 1.7 Because this recipe is for jelly the fish probably was not filletted but just cut open and gutted.

spijc - n, herb: 'lavender', 'spikenard' 1.33

spijse - n: 'food' title

staert, steert - n: 1. part oa animal: 'tail' 1.11. 2. part oa fruit: * 'stalk'  1.6 

stampen (ghestampt) - vb: 'to crush', 'to grind' In a mortar. 1.16, 1.21, 1.23, 2.2, 2.3, 2.26

steen, steenen (pl) - n, part oa fruit: 'pip', 'stone' 1.15 , 1.17

stermijse, stemize, stemyse - n, kitchenware: 'strainer', 'straining cloth' 1.7, 1.8, 1.23, 2.16, 2.20

sticke, sticken (pl) - n: 'piece', 'part' 1.7, 1.16, 1.25, 2.9 - met sticken: 'cut in pieces' 1.1

stoten (gestoten) - vb: 'to crush', 'to grind' In a mortar. 2.4, 2.28

stroo - n: 'straw' 1.26

stroyen - vb: 'to sprinkle' 1.16, 2.5

struve , struwen- n, dish: 'thin pancake' 1.18, 1.content

stuer - n, fish: 'sturgeon' Mainly freshwater fish. 1.30, 1.content

suker, sukere, sukers - n, spice: 'sugar' 1.14, 1.15, 1.22, 1.26, 1.28, 2.4, 2.5, 2.11, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26 suker ghesmolten, ghesmolten sukere - 'sugar syrup' 1.5, 2.1, 2.6, 2.11 sukers wit - 'white sugar' 1.33 

sukeren (ghesukert)- vb: 'to sugar' 1.6, 1.24

surkele - n, herb: 'sorrel' 2.14

swane - n, poultry: 'swan' 1.20 swanen hals- 'swan's neck' 1.content

zweerden - n, part oa animal: 'skin covered with hair, bristle or feathers' 1.24

swert - adj: 'black' 2.4

swijne beene, swijnen beenen, zwijne beene, zwijnen beenen - n, part oa animal: 'pig's trotters' 1.3, 1.4, 1.content

zwijnen rebben - n, meat: litt. 'pork ribs', 'spare ribs' 1.10  

swijnen smoute - n, cooking fat: 'pork fat' 2.2

swijnen vleesche, zwijnen vleesche - n, meat: 'pork'  1.20, 2.13

-T-

taerte, taerten - n, pastry: 'cake' 1.22  taerten van lombaerdien - 'savoury cake from Lombardy' 1.10, 1.content

tafle, taflen - n: 'table' 1.11, 1.24

talven - ten halve frase: 'half-done' 1.1

te puente, te poynte - frase: 'in such a way that' 1.11

temperen (ghetempert) - vb: 'to temper', 'to mix' Mostly by adding a liquid. (passim)

tfaersel , tfaerzer- vaersel

tfel - vel

tfier - vier

tgheroone, tgroene - groene

thooft - hooft

tieren (getiert) - vb: * 'to crush' Related to Latin tero, trivi, tritum, "to grind". 1.32 

tinke, tincken - n, fish: 'tench' Freshwaterfish. 1.7, 2.18, 2.19, 2.content

tsap - sop

tsaysoen - saysoen

- U and V-

vaersel, vaerzele, faersel, faersele, tfaerzer - n: 'stuffing' Mixture with chopped, cooked meat, possibly with spices and/or eggs. 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 , 1.19, 1.20, 1.25, 1.28, 1.content, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5, 2.6, 2.13, 2.27

vaersen (ghevaerst) - vb: 'to stuff'1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 1.content, 2.6, 2.13, 2.23, 2.content

vastbinden - vb: 'to tie up' 2.25

uasten, vastene, vastenen - n: 'Lent' In the forty days from Ash Wednessday till Easter, but also the Wednessdays, Fridays and Saturdays during Ember Days, all meat, meat products and diary products were forbidden. During "normal" weeks the eating of meat was forbidden on -mostly- Wednessdays, Fridays and Saturdays, but diary products were permitted (JSvW). 1.16, 1.17, 1.22, Subtitle, 1.content

vasten struven - n, dish: 'pancake during lent' This means: no eggs. 1.18

vat - caesvat

venkele - n, herb: ''fennel' Probably fennel seed. 1.30, 1.content

venysoen - n, meat: 'roast game' 2.8, 2.content

vercoelen, coelen (vercoelt) - vb: 'cool (off)' 1.5, 1.7, 1.9, 1.101.13, 1.15, 1.22, 1.26, 2.3, 2.7, 2.20, 2.25

verdecken (verdeecht) - vb: 'to cover' 1.6

vel - n, part oa animal: 'skin', 'hide' 1.20, 2.13

velthoen - n, poultry: 'partridge', but also 'pheasant' 1.12

vergaderen - vb: 1. 'bring together' 1.19 2. * 'to thicken', 'to become solid' In the meaning of "being done" (?) 1.28 

verjuse - n: 'verjuice' Juice of sour, unripe grapes. 2.10, 2.17

verkin - n, animal: 'pig' 2.12, 2.content

vermuheeren - vb: * 'to ruffle' ?? Meaning unclear. In WNT vermuieren 'mix with ingrediŽnts of lesser quality'. 1.11

verstropen - vb: 'to strip off' 1.4

verwallen (verwallen) - vb: 'to boil', 'to heat' 1.11, 1.131.19, 1.25, 2.16, 2.content

vet, vetten - n: 'fat' 1.18, 2.23

vet - adj: 'fat' 2.13

vier, fier, tvier, viere, tfier - n: 'fire', The fire on top and in front of which the food was prepared. 1.4 , 1.111.13, 1.23, 1.25, 1.28, 2.4, 2.28, 2.29 cleen vier- 'slow fire'  1.20 

vier - nm: 'four' 1.19

vierendeel - n: 'quarter' vierendeel pont- 'quarter pound' or 107,5 gram (v. pont) 1.31, 1.32, 1.33

vierdonc - n, measure: 'quarter of a marc' A "marc" is according to MNW half a pound (8 medieval "ounces"), a "vierdonc" should weigh about 54 gram or 1,9 modern ounces (UK) . But according to VH a Flemish marc weighed 6 "ounces", a "vierdonc" would then weigh about 40 gram or 1,4 modern ounces (UK). 1.33 

vinckelsaet - n, herb: 'fennel seed' 1.15

vinger, vingeren (pl) - n, measure: 'length of a finger' About 2 inches. 1.19

visch, vissche, visschen (pl) - n: 'fish', Neutral. 1.7, 1.19, 1.27, 1.content, 2.17

viuees, viues - n: * Name of a dish of meatballs in sheep's caul. 1.25, 1.content

vladen (pl) - n, dish: '* 'stuffed pastry' 2.content ghesoden vladen- Deep-fried dough with a stuffing of fresh cheese and egg yolks. 2.26

vleesch, vleessche - n: 'meat', Neutral. 2.2, 2.13, 2.27 - barghin vleesch- 'pork' 1.3, 2.3 swijnen vleesche, zwijnen vleessche- 'pork' 1.20, 2.13 wederin vleesch- 'wether meat' 2.22

voet - n, part oa animal: 1.9  

vullen (ghevult) - vb: 'to stuff' 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.20, 2.2, 2.6, 2.26

uut, vut, huut, hute - adv/prep: 'out'

vut wringhen (vut ghewronghen) - vb: 'to wring out' 2.14

vyge, vigen(pl), vygen (pl) - n, fruit: 'fig' 1.15 , 1.17, 1.18, 1.27

-W-

waermoes, warmoes - n: 'greens', 'leafy vegetables' 1.13, 1.content 

wallen (gewallen) - vb: 'to boil' water, but also fat 1.4, 1.81.10, 1.18, 1.29, 2.1, 2.3, 2.6

water, watere - n, liquid: 'water'(passim) zoeten watre- 'freshwater' 2.17

weder - 1. adv: 'again' 2. n, animal: 'wether' Castrated ram. 2.content

wederin - adj: 'of a wether' 2.22

wel - adv: 'well' 'thoroughly'

wintelen, wyntelen - vb: 'to cover', 'to pull through' 1.5, 2.1, 2.6, 2.26

witte, witten - adj: 'white' witte worsten, witten barghijn smoute, wit smout

witte - n: 1. 'the white part' (here of leeks) 1.13 2. 'the white meat' Of poultry 2.4, or fish 2.11 3. 'egg white' 2.6, 2.29

wittebrood, witte broode, witte broods - broot

worst, worsten - n, meat: 'sausage' 1.content - witte worsten: 'white sausages' From rec. 1.18 it seems that the stuffing for these "sausages" is rolled into a thin sheet of doiugh and then boiled (like canneloni). Stuffing with meat: 1.3 Or with fish liver: 1.19

worttelen (pl) - n, part oa plant: 'roots' worttelen van pedercelle - 'parsley roots' 1.15

wriven, wrijven, wryuen (ghewreuen) - vb: 1. 'to crush', 'to mash' (passim) 2. 'to roll out' Dough. 1.22

wijn, wijns, wijne, wine - n, liquid: 'wine' (passim)

wijnasijne, wijn asijn, wijn asyne - asijn 

(Z see S)