This is the glossary to the diplomatic edition of the late-fifteenth-century Middle Dutch cookery book ms. GentKANTL 15, volume 1. It is also an index to the cookery book, the numbers following the entries refer to the recipes in the edition in which the lemma is used. If anyone has suggestions or corrections, or misses something in this glossary, please let me know.

The glossary is Middle Dutch - English. I hope that Dutch people who are interested in medieval cookbooks will have no problems with this. They can always look at the translation in modern Dutch that runs parallel with the edition.

The order of the entries is a little different from the usual alphabetical order.

  • The letters 'c' and 'k' at the beginning of a word are treated as one and can be found under 'c'
  • The letters 'i' and 'j' at the beginning of a word are treated as one and can be found under 'i'.
  • The letters 'y' and 'ij' are treated as one. In Dutch, the combination 'ij' is a diphthong, alphabetically ordered under 'i'. Although 'ij' is not identical to 'y',  in medieval manuscripts 'y' and 'ij' seem to be interchangeable, and sometimes it is very hard to discern between the two in writing (although in this manuscript the difference was clear).
  • Words starting with 'y' and 'ij' can be found under 'i/j/y'. (see supra)
  • The letters 'u' and 'v' at the beginning of a word are treated as one and can be found under 'u'.
  • The letters 's' and 'z' at the beginning of a word are treated as one and can be found under 's'.

A  B  C/K  D  E  F  G  H  I/J/Y  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S/Z  T  U/V  W

-A-

aellutken - adj: 'a little' 1.88

aemsdonck, amsdonck - n: 'starch', 'amylum' 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.45

af ghieten, af ghijeten - vb: 'to pour off' 1.53

af setten - vb: 'to take off the fire' 1.24

af sijlten - corrupt for afsetten (comp. GV VIII.26, CI p.145/146) 1.20

ajuijn - juyn

amandellen (pl), amandelen (pl), mandellen (pl) - n: 'almonds' 1.9, 1.13, 1.16, 1.17, 1.23, 1.27, 1.30, 1.44, 1.53, 1.59, 1.63, 1.64, 1.651.731.74, 1.78 gheschelden amandellen - 'blanched almonds' 1.60

(a)mandelboter - n: 'almond butter' (like peanut butter) 1.74

amandelmolck, ameldel molcks - n: 'almond milk' 1.181.731.74

amandel pappen - n: 'almond pap' 1.74

andivie water - n: 'infusion of endive' 1.91

anijs - n, herb: 'aniseed' 1.82

appelcock - n, dish: 'applecake' Some kind of pancake 1.72

appel (pl), appelle (pl), appellen (pl) - n, fruit: 'apples' 1.20, 1.59, 1.60, 1.61, 1.62, 1.63, 1.64, 1.65, 1.661.72, 1.781.86, 1.87

appeltart - n, dish: 'apple pie' 1.87

-B-

backen - vb: 'to bake', 'to fry' 1.63, 1.66, 1.78

balssum - n, herb: * 'spearmint' 1.58

bammengier - Error for blammengier 

baef - n: 'Bavo' Patron saint of Ghent. His festival is celebrated on October 1. 1.62

bant - n: * 'thickening', 'binding agent' 1.25

bassielijckum - n, herb: * 'basil' 1.58

baxsse - 'bake/fry them' 1.61

beduijte, bedeute, bedewijte - n, measure: * 1/4 pitcher, 0,4 litre (VH), but here maybe equal to pijnte  1.16, 1.251.88, 1.91  

been - n, part oa animal: 'bone' 1.18

beersvel, bersvels - n, meat: 'fat meat of the throat of the pig' 1.23

bernaesij, bernardij - n, herb: 'borage' Borago officinalis, tailwort. 1.92

bernen - vb: 'to roast' (bread) 1.40

beschaten - not beschaten

betonij - n, herb: 'betony' Stachys officinalis, bishop's wort. 1.92.

betonje water - n: 'infusion of betony (bishop's wort)' 1.91

bladren van blomen - n, part oe plant: 'petals' 1.8

blae, blase - n, organ: 'bladder' 1.71

blaeu, blau, blauen- adj: 'blue' (the ms has in 1.4 a corrupt form: beau) 1.41.74

blammengier - n, dish: 'blancmanger' A light coloured sauce or thick porridge, thickened with almonds or almond milk. 1.161.17, 1.18

bleck - adj: litt: 'pale' * 'sautéed lightly' onions 1.20, 1.21

blome - n, part oe plant: 'flower' 1.8 teruen blomen - 'wheat flour' 1.68, 1.701.85

bluijsteren - vb: 'to scorch' 1.15

bode(m) - n: 'bottom' 1.77

boghelosse - n, herb: bugloss' Anchusa officinalis. 1.92

boragie water - n: 'infusion of borage' 1.91

borende water - 'brandy', 'firewater' 1.91 leuens water 

bornen (ghebort, ghebornt, gheborst) - vb: 'to burn', * 'to toast' 1.101.43, 1.46

boter, boeter, botere, boteren - n: 'butter' 1.13, 1.21, 1.40, 1.52, 1.58, 1.61, 1.63, 1.66, 1.681.771.80, 1.81 Meaning 'almond butter' 1.74 Butter made with eggs 1.77 clar boter - 'clarified butter' 1.67 boter weruen- 'colour of butter' 1.74

boteren- vb: 'to add butter to something' 1.75

braden (ghebraden, ghebraeden) - vb: 'to roast', 'to fry', 'to grill' 1.12, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.28, 1.34, 1.35, 1.42a, 1.44, 1.54, 1.60

brasijenmen - n, freshwaterfish: 'bream' 1.45

breken - vb: 'to mash, to crush' 1.72

broet, brot, broot - n: 'bread' 1.9, 1.10, 1.13, 1.37, 1.38, 1.40, 1.41, 1.42a, 1.42b, 1.43, 1.44, 1.45, 1.46, 1.501.56 wijtten broet, wijtten broets, wijttenbrot, wijtbroet, wijt broet, wijt broets, wijt brots, wijt brot - 'white bread' 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.27, 1.28, 1.33, 1.35, 1.47, 1.48, 1.54, 1.57, 1.58, 1.59, 1.601.72, 1.83 gheraspt wijt broet, gheraspt wijtten broet - 'grated white bread'  1.72, 1.83, 1.84

brot sucar- brot sucar

brouwe, brouue - n, liquid: 'boiling liquid' 1.10 definition: "brouue dat is half wlessop ende half wijn". In translation: "brouue, that is half meat broth and half wine" (1.10)

bruijn - adj: 'brown' 1.10, 1.40

brij - n: here *'pulp' 1.74

busse - n: 'tin', 'canister' 1.77

bijaen - n, wine: Wine from Beaune (Bourgogne). 1.88

bijnden (ghebonden) - vb: 'to thicken' a sauce or dish 1.13, 1.23, 1.38, 1.40, 1.43, 1.46, 1.531.741.86

bij peeper - n, dish: 'pepper sauce' Spiced sauce for pork. 1.43

-C-

calfsoeren (pl)- n: 'calf's ears' In this case: pastry formed like a calf's ear. 1.64 

calfsvoet - n, meat: 'veal trotter' very good too make gelatinous stock 1.25

cameneij - comeneij

canel, canels, calel, kanel - n, spice: 'cinnamon' 1.14, 1.15, 1.20, 1.22, 1.25, 1.26, 1.28, 1.33, 1.35, 1.36, 1.38, 1.40, 1.43, 1.51, 1.53, 1.54, 1.58, 1.64, 1.83, 1.871.891.90, 1.91  poeder van canel - canelpoyer, pijpcanel

canelpoyer, calelpoyer, canelpoyder, canel poder, canel poeder - n, spice: 'ground cinnamon'1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.27, 1.30, 1.52, 1.59, 1.60, 1.65, 1.66, 1.691.72, 1.811.86

cappen - vb: 'to chop' 1.87

capuijn, capuynen (pl), capuijnen (pl) - n, poultry: 'capon' A castrated cock. 1.16, 1.28, 1.35

carspet, cars speckt, karspet - n: 'bread' According to CI "white bread". In MNW "blanck of groff kerspet" ("white or brown bread").  1.11 , 1.66, 1.67 

karstandijen (pl) - n, fruit: '(sweet) chestnuts' 1.81

kauden - vb: 'to cool off' 1.45, 1.53

kaut, qaut, qauden - adj: 'cold', 'cooled' 1.14, 1.15, 1.23, 1.25, 1.45, 1.531.73

kenel - canel

kernelhuijs, kersel huijs, kerlhuys`, kersel - n, part oa fruit: 'core' 1.25, 1.64, 1.651.79

kese - n: 'cheese' 1.76, 1.77

ketel - n, kitchenware: 'kettle', 'cauldron' 1.401.76

clar, claer - 1. adj: 'clear' , 1.25, 1.531.88 2. adv: 'completely' 1.53

claren (gheclard)- vb: 'to clarify' 1.53

clareyt sack - n, kitchenware: * 'wine skin' Tapered, meant to filter wine (MNW has: "to keep wine in"). 1.251.88

clauuen - n: litt. 'claw' clauuen ... ghenbars- ''ginger rhizome' 1.27

clonten (pl) - n: 'lumps' 1.16

koeck, kocks - n: '("ginger") bread' 1.59 gheraps kocks - 'grated ("ginger")bread' To thicken a stuffing. 

coelen, koellen - vb: 'to cool'  1.691.76

koeren - koeren van ghernaten

koerfken - n: 'small basket' 1.76

kolen, colen (pl) - n, fuel: 'coal' 1.66, 1.67 kolen wier- 'coal fire' 1.76

comeneij, coemeneij, cameneij, coemeneijn - n, dish: 'cumin sauce' With cumin. 1.15, 1.39 (for salt meat and partridges/pheasants), 1.45 (for fresh water fish during Lent) V. also hameleijn.

komijn - n, spice: 'cumin' 1.15, 1.39, 1.45

coren - n: 'corn', 'grain' 1.8 

criijt - cruijden

cruijden - vb: 'to season' 1.11

kruymen, kruijme, krommen - n: 'bread crumbs'  1.11, 1.23, 1.33, 1.60 'crumbs of one loaf of bread' 1.27 

cruijt - n: 'ground spices' 1.9, 1.46, 1.53, 1.63

cubeben - n, spice: 'cubeb', 'Java pepper', 'tailed pepper' 1.17

-D-

dalen - de halen- hael, roets van dalen

deech, dech, deck - n: 'dough' 1.61, 1.64, 1.78

dienen, dijnen - vb: 'to dish up', 'to serve' 1.13, 1.14, 1.64

doeck - n: 'cloth' 1.74

doepen - vb: 'to peel' or 'to sop' eeijeren jn die boeter gedoept- 'eggs, fried in (a lot of) butter' 1.52 

doer - doijer (1.86)

doer slaen, doer doen (doer geslaghen, doer ghesleghen) - vb: 'to push through [a sieve]', 'to strain' (passim)

donst - znw: n: 'fine flour of meal' 1.85

dop, doppen (pl) - n: 'shell' of an egg 1.73

doter - + 'add to it'

doudijnen - n, dish: * name of a sauce 1.20

doijer, doyer, doer, doyeren (pl) - n: 'yolk' 1.18, 1.33, 1.34, 1.37, 1.41, 1.711.731.75, 1.831.85 roden doer- 'red yolk' 1.86

dranck - n: 'medicine' 1.91 

droghen - vb: 'to dry' 1.11.8, 'to toast' To dry through fire. 1.9, 1.14

dropen (ghedropt) - vb: 'to baste' With fat.1.35

dunne - adj: 'thin' Of a sauce. 1.39

duven, duuen, duijffen (pl) - n, poultry: 'pigeons' 1.21, 1.22, 1.33

dijck, dijcke, dijckke - adj/adv: 'thick' of a sauce 1.14, 1.16, 1.18, 1.34, 1.35, 1.37, 1.44, 1.451.741.75

dijcken - vb: 'to thicken' Through boiling. 1.82

dijckten, dijcksten - n: 'consistency' 1.68, 1.70

dijnen, dijenen - vb: 'to serve' 1.21, 1.22, 1.231.73

dijstelleren - vb: 'to distil' 1.92

-E-

eck, eeck, exs, eexs, eyck, edick, edijck - n, liquid: 'vinegar' 1.9, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.20, 1.22, 1.26, 1.27, 1.30, 1.35, 1.38, 1.39, 1.41, 1.42a, 1.42b, 1.46, 1.47, 1.48, 1.50, 1.511.86 V. wijneck.

eent , eentvoghel, entvoghel, eentvoghell- n, poultry: 'duck' 1.19, 1.20

eghen - negheen

elft - n, fish: 'allis shad' A herring like fish which ascends rivers in the spring to spawn. 1.54

elsen - n, herb:  * 'wormwood' a bitter herb. 1.56

erden - adj: ''earthenware' 1.16, 1.531.731.76

eruijten (pl) - n, legume: 'peas' Not the young garden peas, but older green peas or marrowfat peas. 1.40

exs, eexs - eck

ey, eye, eey, eijeren(pl), eeijeren (pl), eyer (pl), eyeren (pl) - n: 'egg' 1.18, 1.33, 1.34, 1.41, 1.52, 1.61, 1.62, 1.66, 1.67, 1.681.711.72, 1.731.751.761.86 harden eyeren, haerdde eyeren - 'hardboiled eggs' 1.37, 1.58, 1.63, 1.78 (moru) eyer ghegrinden- 'fried eggs' or 'omelette' or 'scrambled eggs' 1.42a, 1.42b rauen ey, ru eyeren , ruuen eyeren- 'uncooked egg(s)' 1.63, 1.66 1.841.85  eyer smaut- * + 'omelette' 1.67 gherurden eyeren - *'scrambled eggs' 1.86 See also wijt nr 3

eyer kees - n: *'cheese from eggs' 1.76

eyndelijngh - adv: 'straight up'2 1.73

eysdoier - n: 'egg yolk' 1.13 V. doijer 

-F-

foldij, foldije, foldijen, folen - n, spice: 'mace' 1.16, 1.17, 1.21, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.38, 1.431.89, 1.91

frijten - vb: 'to fry in fat' 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.59, 1.67 wretse 

fuijer - vier

fijolenblomen - n, flower: 'violet'  Viola odorata. 1.4, 1.251.74

-G-
g = gh

galentijn - n, dish: A sauce with a lot of galingale. 1.24 

galigaen, galigan, galeghaen - n, spice: 'galingale' Resembles ginger root. 1.241.56, 1.91

ganseleijn, ganseleij, gansseleije - n, dish: * Originally a sauce for goose, later also for other meat. 1.13, 1.37, 1.44

gansen loeck - dish: Name of a sauce for fresh beef. 1.42a

gansen smaut - n, cooking fat: 'goose fat' 1.42a

gaveren - n, dish: * Name of a sauce from Gavere in East-Flanders (Belgium) (CI). 1.21

ghebacken - n: 'batch', 'something baked' 1.69

ghebonden - bijnden

ghebootert - boteren    

ghebornt, gheborst, ghebort - bornen

ghebraet, ghebrat - n: 'roast' 1.33 Of fish: 1.66

ghebraiden, ghebraden - braden

ghebroken - breken

gheclarden - claren

ghedijstellert - dijstelleren

ghedroghde, gedroghde, ghedrucht, ghedrocht - droghen

gheel, ghel- adj: 'yellow' 1.2, 1.12, 1.25

gheformde - vormen

ghegate - adj: 'with holes' 1.77

gheharst, gheherst - hersten

geley, gheley, geleije, geleey - n, dish: * 'clear jelly', liquid (wine), Thickened with isenglass, gun arabic, calf's bones or the cores of quinces. 1.25

ghelte - n, liquid measure: Between 2.34 (VH) and 3 (MNW, K) litres. 1.89

ghemeijn - adj: 'simple', 'common' 1.301.89

ghemenght, ghemenckt- menghen

ghenaten - corrupt: ghernaten

ghenber, ghenbaer, ghenbar, ghembar, ghenbair - n, spice: 'ginger' 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.30, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.36, 1.38, 1.40, 1.41, 1.43, 1.46, 1.47, 1.53, 1.54, 1.58, 1.59, 1.60, 1.62, 1.64, 1.65, 1.66, 1.691.72, 1.82, 1.831.86, 1.871.881.891.90, 1.91 wijtten ghenbars, wijtten ghenbar - 'white ginger' Ginger of prime quality. 1.16, 1.23 ghenbars poyer, ghenbarspoyers, ghenbars poders- 'pounded ginger' 1.16, 1.19, 1.39

gheneuer besijghen (pl) - n, herb: 'juniper berries' 1.92

gheraps, gheraspt - raspen

gheray - adv: 'fast', violently'  1.86

ghernaten - n, fruit: ''pomegranate' koeren van ghernaten- 'pips of pomegranate' 1.16 

gherockt - 'shredded' Bread. 1.66

gherost - rosten

ghesauten - sauten

gheschelt - schellen

ghescherden- corrupt gheschelden- schellen

ghesoden, ghesoeden - sijeden

gesonde, gesont - adj: 'healthy' 1.51, 1.55 ghesonsten- 'healthiest' 1.88

ghestampt - stampen

ghestofde - stouen

ghestoten - stoten 

gheuerde, gheuerut - verwen

gheueijckt, gheveyckt, ghewickt - weycken

gheuormde, ghewoernde - vormen

gheuijlt - vullen

ghewyt - Error in writing for ghewyct, wycken 1.9 

gome van araibien - n: 'gum Arabic' Liquid which seeps from cuts in the bark of the Acacia Senegal. 1.25

graeu - n: 'gray' 1.6

greyn, greyne, greynne - n, spice: 'grains of paradise' Or pepper melegueta, coriander seeds can be substituted. 1.12, 1.15, 1.25, 1.26, 1.32, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.36, 1.38, 1.40, 1.41, 1.43, 1.46, 1.62, 1.65, 1.82

groen, gruen, grien - adj: 1. 'green' 1.3, 1.11, 1.25, 1.78 2. 'fresh' 1.55

grof - adj: 'coarse' 1.74

groffens naghel, groffes naghel - n, spice: 'clove' 1.89, 1.90

ghijeten, ghieten, ghijten - vb: 'to pour' 1.16, 1.23, 1.47, 1.52, 1.54, 1.821.88 V. af ghieten.

-H-

hael - n: 'kettle hook' Iron hook on which the kettle hangs above the fire. 1.6

halse - n: 'neck' 1.60

hameleijn - adj: in fact 'of a wether (castrated ram)' sausse hameleijn- could in analogy with ganseleijn mean 'sauce for wether meat'. However, GV VIII.8 (CI p.153) has "camerlijn", which is a vadiant form of "camelijn", 'cumin sauce' (v. comeneij). KANTL Gent 15 is probably corrupt in this place 1.14

hamelvlees - n: 'meat of a wether' 1.61

harse - n, meat: 1. harst, 'roast' 2. Error in writing for hase, 'hare' (GV VIII.1, CI p.152 has here hase). It could mean either in 1.10 

haverbesingen - n, fruit: * 'blueberries' (in WNT, but not with this meaning) 1.7

herlijchsten - adj: 'most delicious' 1.88

hersten, harsten (gheharst) - vb: 'to roast', 'to toast' 1.15, 1.38, 1.48

hoene, hone, honderen (pl), hoenderen (pl) - n, poultry: 'chicken' 1.16, 1.27, 1.33, 1.34, 1.41 spirinck vanden hoene- 'chicken breast' the white meat of the chicken 1.17

honderen - hoene

hondervles - n, meat: 'chicken meat' 1.18

honderweet- n: 'chicken fat' 1.60

honich, honijch, homijch - n: 'honey' 1.49, 1.82

huijsenblas, husen blas, huijsen blat - n: 'isinglass' A thickener (collagen), made from the dried sounds of sturgeon, hake and cod. 1.251.73

-I/J-
ij = y

jauijn - juyn

ideleen - adj: 'empty' 1.73

jespi - n, dish: * A sauce for roast hens, thickened with egg yolks and chicken livers. CI p.64 mentions that VdN rec.nr 57 calls this same dish "jespi oft pappe", which means the sauce is rather thick. In VdN the use of chicken livers is optional. 1.34  

jpencras - n, drink: 'white or red spiced and sweetened wine' 1.251.881.89, 1.90

jseren - 1. adj: 'iron' jseren schel 2. n: '(wafer) iron' 1.84 ghetralden isere - A wafer iron with a gridlike motive? When the grid would be perforated the batter would seep through. I have translated it for now as "decorated wafer iron". The wafers from the preceding recipe were probably baked in a pan. 1.84  

juyn, juijns, ajuijn - n, vegetable: 'onion' 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.40 

(K see C)

-L-

lepel - n: 'spoon' 1.83, 1.91

leuens water - n: 'brandy', 'firewater' 1.91 borende water

leuer - n, offal: 'liver' leuer vanden honderen - 'chicken livers' 1.34 leuer vanden wijs - 'fish liver' 1.60 

locht - adj: 'light' In taste. 1.601.86 In structure1.86

loeck, loock - n, herb: 'garlic' 1.29, 1.37, 1.42a, 1.42b, 1.44, 1.57 ghemeijn loeck - 'garlic' 1.31 groen loeck- dish: Name of a green sauce made with a garlic-like plant. 1.31 wijt loeck-scordeon V. gansen loeck

loeckechtich - adj: 'garlicky' 1.31

loot , loet- n, measure: Lit. 'lead' (The metal). 1/32 pound of 1/2 ounce (VH): appr. 15 gram (1 tablespoon). 1.16, 1.25, 1.82, 1.871.89, 1.90, 1.91

lummelen - n, meat: 'flank' The meat in the underbelly of the animal, from which stewing meat is cut. 1.26

luttel - adv: 'little', 'bit'

lijcht - adj: 'light' In structure1.86

lijuaet n: 'linen cloth' 1.74

-M-

macht - n: 'strength' (with regard to humoral pathology?) 1.46

macksel n: 'form' 1.8

maddeleijn - n, herb: 'marjoram' 1.58

maeghe - n: 'stomach' 1.56

magher - adj: 'not fat', 'degreased' 1.16, 1.18, 1.41, 1.42b

mandelboter - (a)mandelboter

mandellen - amandellen 1.9 

manieren - n: 'kinds', 'varieties' 1.9

marieren - Error in writing for manieren 1.9

mastijck gommy - n: 'gum of the mastic tree'  1.56

meersvijn, mersvijn - n, mammal: 'porpoise'1.46

meght - menghen

mel - spans mel

melsucar- sucar

menghen, menghghen, meghghen, meghen (ghemenght, ghemenckt) - vb: 'to temper', 'to mix' 1.15, 1.32, 1.46, 1.58, 1.61, 1.661.721.73, 1.77, 1.84

mente - n, herb: 'mint' 1.48, 1.51, 1.56

merch - n, meat: 'marrow' 1.21, 1.22

mort troeyt (morttroeyen?) - vb: 'to bake with lumps' 1.86

moeskumken - n: *'small bowl for porridge' 1.73 

molck, molc - n: 'milk' 1.42a sueten molck, veers suets molcks - 'fresh milk' 1.231.76

mont - n: Actually 'mouth', here 'taste' 1.87

morbesingen - n, fruit: 'mulberries' 1.7

mortijr, mortier, mortijer - n, kitchenware: 'mortar' 1.42a, 1.42b, 1.64, 1.65, 1.70, 1.77

moru, moruue, mur, muruen - adj: 'soft', 'done' 1.22, 1.23, 1.42a, 1.661.741.80, 1.821.86

mosters, mostaris - n: 'mustard' 1.32, 1.52

mur, muruen- moru

muskeraet - n, spice: 'musc' (WNT "muskeljaat") 1.88

musse - n: *'small bowl for porridge' Cf. moeskumken. 1.85

mijsererij mey deus - Indication of duration: 'Have mercy on my, oh God' The first words of Psalms 50, 51 and 56 (Vulgate). Psalm 50 has a prominent place in liturgy, and several musical settings have been made for the Miserere. When I read the Latin text aloud it takes me about two-and-a-half minutes. I suppose they used a ceremonial rendition of the Miserere because quinces need much longer to cook then 150 seconds. 1.82

-N-

naghel, naghelen (pl), naghelle (pl) - n, spice: 'cloves', 1.21, 1.24, 1.34, 1.38, 1.41, 1.43, 1.46, 1.82, 1.91 groffens naghel

nat, nate, naehte, naets - n, liquid: 'boiling liquid', 'broth' 1.16, 1.18, 1.27, 1.531.80

nat, naet - adj: 'moist' 1.36, 1.70

negheen - nm: 'no', 'none' 1.25

noet - adv: 'necessary' 1.23

not, noten - n: 'nut', hazelnut or walnut 1.1

not beschaten, noten beschaten - n, spice: 'nutmeg' 1.24, 1.90, 1.91

notbosten - n: 'nutshell', husk' 1.1

nwelen (pl) - n: 'thin wafers'. 1.85

-O-

och - conj: 'or' 1.9

oels blomen - n, part oe plant: 'poppy flowers' 1.8 

okernoten (pl) - n: 'walnuts' 1.65, 1.78

olye, olije - n: '(cooking) oil' 1.59, 1.64, 1.70 rap olije- 'cole seed oil' 1.70

omers - adv: 'especially' In MNW to be found at "immers". 1.86

omme rueren - vb: 'to stir' 1.41

ongheronnen - adj: *'uncoagulated' Of egg white. 1.71

onghesauter - adj: 'unsalted' 1.77

ongheschelden - adj: 'unpeeled' 1.79

ons, onse - n, measure: 'ounce' This was 1/16 part of a pont, almost 27 gram (VH), a bit less than the modern ounce (which is 28,35 gram). 1.821.881.89

onstucken - adj: 'to pieces' 1.25, 1.651.73

ontwe, onttve, onttue - adv: 'in small pieces' 1.16, 1.18, 1.27, 1.34, 1.41, 1.62

op rijchten - vb: 'to serve up' 1.27, 1.31, 1.42a1.75

op sieden - vb: 'to bring to the boil' 1.14, 1.20, 1.25, 1.43

ouen - n: 'oven' 1.61, 1.63, 1.64

ouer sproyen - vb: 'to sprinkle' 1.79

ouer stroyen - vb: 'to sprinkle' 1.75

-P-

paesschen - n: 'Easter' 1.35

pannen, panne - n, kitchenware: 'pan', 'casserole' 1.19, 1.61, 1.66

pappen - vb: * 'to stick' 1.9 

peeckel - n, dish: * 'mustard sauce' In MNW only the usual meaning (brine) is found. In GV VIII.63 (CI p.169) there are 3 consecutive recipes for "pekel" that have only the ingredient "mustard" in common. Thence: 'mustard sauce' 1.32

pelmeye - n, dish: * 'applesauce' 1.32

peper - n: 1. spice: 'black pepper' Whole or ground. 1.29, 1.48, 1.51, 1.57, 1.62 1.87, 1.90 2. dish: 'pepper sauce' A mostly dark coloured, heavily spiced sauce for the winterseason. 1.24, 1.38 (for salt roast game), 1.46 (for porpoise) peperpoder - 'ground pepper' 1.49

pepercock - n: + 'ginger bread' 1.64

peper cruijt - n, herb: Lit. "pepper herb". It can mean any of the following herbs according to MNW: 'pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium)', 'summer savory (Satureja hortensis), 'horseradish (Cochlearia armoracia)' The WNT has a fourth possibility 'watercress (Polygonum hydropiper)' 1.58

peren (pl) - n, fruit: 'pears' 1.781.80

persse - adj: 'purple' 1.7 

peterselij, peterselije, petercelije - n herb: 'parsley' 1.11, 1.29, 1.42b, 1.48, 1.55, 1.57, 1.58, 1.78 peterselijsop, peterselij schop - litt. 'parsley juice', The juice of ground parsley. 1.3, 1.25

poeder, poider, poyer, poder - n: 'powder' 1.14, 1.15, 1.26, 1.32, 1.91 'ground spices' 1.18, 1.91

pont - n, measure: 'pound' 430 gram (Pound of Gent, VH) 1.161.74, 1.90 V. virdelpont

pot - n 1. kitchenware: 'pot', 'saucepan' 1.26, 1.40, 1.411.731.761.791.88, 1.90nven erden pot - 'new earthenware pot' 1.16, 1.53 2. measure: Equals a "quart", 1,17 litre. 1.25

poterie - n: * 'potherbs' Braekman follows the explanation of Cockx Indestege at GV VIII 85: 'Poitier' (CI p.173). She mentions the edition of  Le Viandier (Pichon/Vicaire), but "saulce poitevine" is a totally different sauce. 1.48 

pot sucar - sucar

present - n: *Name of a cheese, made with milk and eggs. 1.77

puluer, poder, poeder, poeyder - n: 'powder' 1.25, 1.26, 1.46, 1.82

pur - pur roet

purey - znw: 'puree' 1.40
    n: 'puree' 1.40

pijnte - n, measure: 'pint' 0,586 litre (VH) 1.16 

pijpcanel - n, spice: 'stick of cinnamon' 1.88

-Q-

quart - n, measure: according to MNW two pints, i.e. 1,17 litre 1.25

qauden, qaut - kaut

queappelen (pl), queen (pl), queyen (pl)- n, fruit: 'quinces' 1.251.79, 1.82

quetsen - vb: 'to crush' In a mortar. 1.25

-R-

raspen, gheraspt- vb: 'to rasp' 1.591.72, 1.83, 1.84

rasschoen - n: * + 'pancake' Derived from French "raston". This term can designate several dishes, from a classic pancake with eggs and yeast (JSvW 181) to cheese cookies  (CI 63). 1.66

rauen - ru

reijgheren (pl), reijghers (pl) - n, poultry: 'herons' 1.28, 1.35

reijn - adj: 'clean' 1.91

roesblader - n, part oe plant: 'rose petals' 1.8

roest - n, meat: 'roast' 1.33, 1.40

roesvater, roes water - n: 'rose water' 1.79 1.91, 1.92

roesijne - rosijnen

roet - 1. n: 'soot', 'grease', roets van dalen: 'grease of the kettlehook' (GV VII, CI p.151 has here root sandall, 'red sandal wood' , but you don't get a grey colour with this) 1.6 2. adv: root 1.211.88

roffioelen (pl), roffiolen (pl) - n: 'small pasty' 1.61, 1.62, 1.65

rogen brot - n: 'rye bread' 1.70

roghblomen - n, flower: 'rye flowers' or cornflowers (bluebottles) 1.4, 1.25

roghen - n, oa fish: 'roe' 1.70

romen - n, dairy: 'cream' sueten romen- 'fresh cream' 1.19, 1.37, 1.84

root, roet, roy, roder, roden - adj: 'red' 1.5, 1.81.88 'brown' From toasting. 1.14, 1.21, 1.38, 1.40  pur roet- 'crimson' 1.25

rop - n: 'stomach of a fish' 1.60

rosemarijn, roesermerijn - n, herb: 'rosemary' 1.50, 1.58

rost - roest

rostel - n, kitchenware: 'gridiron' 1.14, 1.20, 1.60

rosten (gherost) - vb: 'to roast' 1.21, 1.50, 1.54

rosijnen (pl), roesijne (pl), rosiin (pl) - n, fruit: 'grapes', 'dried grapes', 'raisins' 1.26, 1.59, 1.601.76

rovirvijs - n: 'freshwater fish' 1.45

ru, ruen, ruuen, rouuen, rauen - adj: 'raw', 'uncooked' 1.18, 1.33, 1.63, 1.66, 1.71 1.841.85

rueren - vb: 'to stir' 1.86

ruert ... omme- omme rueren (1.41)

runderen (pl) - n, animal: 'cows', 'beef' 1.26

runsvet - n: 'beef fat' 1.61

runt - adj: 'round' 1.64

runtvlees - n, meat: 'beef' 1.42a

rijchten - vb: 'to serve' v. oprijchten. 1.53

rijs - n: 'rice' 1.74

-S/Z-
sc = sch

sack - clareyt sack

saeft - n: 'juice' or adv: 'softly' ? 1.11

safferaens -sofferaen

saneij - n, dish: Name of a dish of braised meat with raisins. 1.26 

sap - n: 'liquid', 'juice' 1.6, 1.47

sausier, sausijer - n, kitchen/tableware: 'sauce boat', * ''deep dish or saucer' , 1.23, 1.641.74

sausse, sause, saus, saussen (pl) - n: 'sauce' passim 1.56: 'medicinal mixture' 

saut, sout - n: 'salt' 1.29, 1.42b, 1.43, 1.57, 1.611.731.86

sauten (ghesauten) - vb: 'to salt', 'to soak in brine' 1.38

sauije, sauie, sauye - n, herb: 'sage' 1.29, 1.47, 1.48, 1.57

sauons - 'at night' 1.34

scabijoes water - n: 'infusion of Scabiosa' In the HD Scabiosa is also named 'hazenoor' (hare ear, fir the shape of its leafs). 1.91 

schalle - n: 'dish' 1.80

schel, schellen (pl) - n: 1. * 'lid' jseren schel-'iron lid' With raised sides, on which lid embers can be placed. 1.66, 1.67 2. 'skin' Of fruit. 1.80

schellen - vb: 'to peel' 1.16, 1.20, 1.22, 1.23, 1.27, 1.53, 1.64, 1.65, 1.661.80, 1.81, 1.82

schelpe, scholpen, schulpen - n: 'shell' 1.69 scholpen van sunte jacops - 'Pecten jacobeius' or 'scallops' 1.69

scherbir - n, drink: 'light beer' (ale?)  1.40

scheruen - vb: 'to cut finely' 1.66

scordeon - n, herb: 'allium vineale' or 'crow garlic' GV VIII.49 (CI p.166) is not sure what herb is meant, he guesses at "looc sonder loock". This is a different herb, "alliaria petiolata" or garlic mustard 1.31 

scorinck blader - n: * Unknown herb, to be used instead of sorrel in a recipe for verjus. Not mentioned in GV XVI.22 (CI p.228). 1.55

schotel, scotel, schotelen, schotellen , scotelen - n, tableware: 'serving dish' 1.19, 1.23, 1.33, 1.52, 1.53, 1.691.741.80, 1.811.86 houten schotellen- 'wooden dish' 1.68

schuijmen, gheschuymt - vb: 'to skim off' 1.25, 1.46, 1.82

schijven (pl)- n: 'slices' 1.87

seghelleck - adv: *'lightly' 1.75

sermijn , stromijn, stromijs, tsarmijn- n, kitchenware: 'strainer', 'straining cloth' (passim)

zewair - n, spice: 'zedoary' A plant related to galingale, its taste resembles ginger. 1.50  

siet heet , sie heet, sie het- sijden heet

slaen , gheslagen- vb: * 'to beat up' eggs 1.241.71

slat ... doer , slaet ... dore- doerslaen

slecht - adj: 'simple' 1.90

sloster - n: 'nutshell', 'husk' 1.1

smack - n: 'taste' 1.211.86

smaut - n, cooking fat: 'animal or vegetable cooking fat or oil' 1.19, 1.40, 1.78 V. gansen smaut. eyer smaut- * + 'omelette' 1.67 

smelten, smouten (ghesmouten) - vb: 'to melt' 1.631.73 'to cook to a pulp' Of apples. 1.86

smerechtich - adj: 'greasy' 1.59

smere - n, cooking fat: 'animal fat', 'lard' 1.20

smeren - vb: 'to spread' 1.74

smoren - vb: 'to braise' To simmer in little liquid in a closed pot on a low fire. 1.26

smouten - smelten

snede - n: 'slice' Of bread. 1.70

snoken - n, fresh water fish: 'pike' 1.70

soemer - n: 'summer' 1.55

soemerwulsel - n: 'stuffing in the summertime' 1.58

soepe - n: 1. 'broth' 1.36  2. v. sap 1.47   magher s(c)op- 'degreased broth 1.41, 1.42b

sofferaen, sofraen, safferaen, sofferanis - n: 'saffron' 1.2, 1.12, 1.15, 1.18, 1.25, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.36, 1.37, 1.38, 1.39, 1.41, 1.44, 1.45, 1.46, 1.53, 1.59, 1.60, 1.62, 1.63, 1.64, 1.65, 1.72, 1.73, 1.741.751.88 sofferaen poyer- 'powdered saffron' 1.66

soppen (pl) - n: 'chunks of bread to soak in p.e. soup or milk' 1.67

sorbelet - n, name oa dish: From GV VIII.77 (CI p.172) it seems that "sorbolet" is a summer sauce (and "peper" a winter sauce). 1.41

sout - saut 

soutte - adj: 'salt', 'salted' 1.39

span - n, measure: 'span' A unith of length based on the width of an expanded hand, + 9 inches. 1.66

spans mel - Braekman translates "mel" with *'honey', so: 'honey from Spain'. GV XVI.7 has here "spaens soet". 1.90

speck - n, meat: 'bacon', 'pork' 1.21

spirinck - spirinck vanden hoene

spuellen - vb: 'to rinse' 1.88

spijse - n: * 'stuffing' 1.61, 1.62, 1.651.73

stampen - vb: 'to grind', 'to grind' In a mortar. 1.33, 1.35, 1.36, 1.37, 1.39, 1.42b

steen stenen(pl) - n, part oa fruit: 'stone', 'pip' 1.60, 1.82

stelle - n, part oa fruit: 'stalk' 1.80

stoet - stoten

stoffe, stof - n: * 'mixture', 'stuf' Can be stuffing or batter. 1.63, 1.64, 1.66, 1.68, 1.69, 1.701.85

stofferaen - sofferaen

storten - vb: 'to pour' 1.88

stoten - n: ''to grind', 'to grind' (passim)

stouen (ghestoft, ghestofde) - vb: 'to simmer', 'to braise' 1.361.80

stromijn - sermijn

stroyen (stroter) - vb: 'to sprinkle' 1.52, 1.811.86

stucken, stuckken (pl) - n: 'pieces' 1.22, 1.25, 1.33, 1.82 dunen stucken- 'thin slices' 1.20, 1.21

struijuen, struijfken (verkl./dim.) - n: 'omelette' 1.66 ghecrolden struijuen, ghecrolden struiuen- 'scrambled eggs' 1.68, 1.70

stijf - adj: * 'crisp' 1.64

stijuen - vb: 'to set' 1.86

su(...)- sw(...)

sucar, sucars - n, spice: 'sugar' (passim)  sucar verkert - 'sugar pulled to threads'? verkert 1.17 brot sucar - 'loafsugar' Sugar pressed in cones or loafs that had to be grated or pounded before use. 1.16, 1.17 ghelopen sucar - 'melted sugar' 1.38, 1.40, 1.41 mel sucars- 'powdered sugar' 1.24, 1.611.75, 1.83, 1.90  pot sucars - 'powdered sugar' 1.24, 1.54, 1.61, 1.65, 1.831.89 wijt sucar, wijtten sucar, vijt sucar - 'white sugar' 1.451.731.741.771.85

sucareij, sucareen - n, dish: * Name of a dish with boarmeat thickened with almonds and milk  (an opaque jelly or savoury bavarois). 1.23

suer - adj: 'sour' 1.11

suerkel - n, herb: 'garden sorrel' 1.11, 1.55 surkelblader- znw: 'leaves of garden sorrel' 1.55

suete, suet - adj: 1. 'fresh' 1.19, 1.23, 1.37, 1.701.76, 1.84 2. 'sweet' 1.76

>sukeren-vb: *'to sprinkle with sugar' 1.80

sult, sulte - n, meat: 'brawn', 'headcheese' gelatinous meat of the head of a pig, cow or sheep, cured in brine 1.33, 1.47

sulten - vb: *'to conserve' By cooking in honey or drying and covering with honey and the concentrated cooking fluid. Actual meaning: 'to conserve in vinegar (and possibly brine)' 1.82

sunter baefs - 'of Saint Bavo' V. baef.

surkel - suerkel

svellen - vb: 'to boil' 1.62

svijnen smaut- svijnen smaut

swaen - n, poultry: 'swan' 1.10 svaen halsse - 'swan's neck' 1.60

swijne (pl) - n, animal: 'pigs' 1.43 svijnensmaut - 'lard' 1.69

swaert, suaert - adj: 'black' 1.1

sijeden, sieden, syeden, sijden (ghesoden) - vb: 'to boil' (passim) 

sijden heet, siet heet - adj: 'boiling hot' 1.15, 1.25, 1.69, 1.70

-T-

tafel, taffellen, tafelleen - n: 'table' 1.14, 1.42a

tart - n, dish: 'tart', 'pie' 1.87

teyl, teylle - n: 'pot', 'pan' or 'dish' of earthenware. 1.53

tergijn - n, spice: 'sugared spices' Like aniseed comfits (JSvW) (in The Netherlands traditionally served at the birth of a baby) These were also served after a meal with spiced wine (JSMW) gheuerde tergijn- 'coloured sugarcoated spices'1.16

teruen - n: 'wheat' teruen blomen

toet - Contraction of "toe doet"

tornoysel, tornosijl, ternoisen, tornosols, ternoysche, ternoisel, ternoyssel - n, colouring agent: 'turnsole' A purple blue colouring agent made of different plants like chrozophora tinctoria, but also of the juice of  blueberries or mulberries into which a linen cloth was steeped and dried several times (v. "Eenen nieuwen Coc-boeck" by C.Battus from 1593). 1.5, 1.14, 1.25, 1.541.881.89

tranken - n, diminutive: 'small drop' Of 'traan'='tear' 1.74

trechterken - n, kitchenware: 'small funnel' 1.71

tremolette - n, dish: * Name of sauce which also is used in Le Viandier and by Carolus Battus for a sauce for partridges (CI). 1.22 

tsarmijn - sermijn

tvedel, tve delen - n: 'twothirds'  1.611.791.801.85

-V-

uijt - wijt (2.)

vael - wel

vasten, wasten, vastene - n: 'Lent' In the forty days from Ash Wednessday till Easter, but also the Wednessdays, Fridays and Saturdays during Ember Days, all meat, meat products and diary products were forbidden. During "normal" weeks the eating of meat was forbidden on -mostly- Wednessdays, Fridays and Saturdays, but diary products were permitted (JSvW). 1.16, 1.45, 1.54, 1.59, 1.60, 1.61, 1.63, 1.64, 1.65, 1.70

vat - indef. number: 'some'

vaut - Error in writing for 'water' 1.74 Actually n: 'vault' 

veers - verssen 

vel - wel 

velthoenderen (pl), welthonderen (pl) - n, poultry: 'partridges' But also:  'pheasants' 1.22, 1.39

venisoen, wenijssoen, wennessoen - n, meat: 'roast game' 1.53

venkel, wenkel - n, herb: 'fennel' 1.82 venkel saet- 'fennel seed' 1.82

verckenen (pl)- n, animal: 'pigs', 'pork' 1.26

verckenvlees, werken wlees - n, meat: 'pork' 1.39, 1.62

verjuijs, veriuijs, verjuijsen, verguijs, verjuis - n: 'verjuice' Juice of sour, unripe grapes or other unripe fruit (such as apples). 1.38, 1.40, 1.42a, 1.42b, 1.55 

verkert - sucar verkert ('sugar pulled in threads' ?) 1.17 CI suggests 'crosswise'?: "sprinkle mace and sugar crosswise over it" (GV VIII.15, CI p.155).   

versamet (ms: vercampt) - 'gather' 1.74

versieden - vb: 'to reduce', 'to boil down' 1.82

verssen, veers,  worse, worsser, vorsser - adj: 'fresh' 1.27, 1.42a, 1.76, 1.771.80

verwen, weruen - vb: 'to colour' 1.2, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.25, 1.54, 1.61, 1.63, 1.64, 1.651.721.731.74, 1.88, 1.90

vier, wier, wure, wijr, wiire, viere, fuijer, wijer - n: 'fire' The fire on top and in front of which the food was prepared. 1.10, 1.13, 1.22, 1.24, 1.25, 1.44, 1.45, 1.701.731.761.80

virdelloet, virdendelloets - n, measure: 'a quarter of a "lead"' Since a lead is 15 gram, a quarter lead is 3,75 gram, two-thirds of a modern teaspoon. 1.871.89

virdelpont, virdelpons - n, measure: 'quarter pound' or 107,5 gram (v. pont) 1.231.74, 1.91 drie wirdelpons - 'three-quarter pound' or 322,5 gram 1.741.89

virendel, virdendel - n: 'fourth part', 'quarter' 1.611.85 virdendelloets- virdelloet

virssen - adj: 'fresh' Of meat: not salted, dried or cured. 1.36

visch, wijs- n, animal: 'fish' 1.44, 1.60, 1.631.64

vleessche - n: 'meat'1.42a

vlessop - n, liquid: 'meat broth' 1.10

voerseyt - litt: 'afore said', 'mentioned above'

voir, vore - prep: 'in stead of' 1.59, 1.60

vore - adv: 'previously' 1.22

vormen - vb: 'to form' 1.631.64

vorsser - verssen

vullen (wijlt) - vb: 'to stuff' 1.63, 1.711.73

vulsel - n: 'stuffing' 1.59

vijt - wijt 1.

-W-

wael - wel

wafellen, waffelen (pl) - n: 'wafer' Thin, light pastry. 1.83, 1.84

walberen - n, fruit: * 'blueberries, 'mulberries' (in WNT)1.7, walberen dat sijn haverbesingen

wassen - vb: 'to grow' 1.8

wasten - vasten 

wat - n: 'vessel' 1.91

water - n: 'water'1.46, 1.531.731.761.791.80, 1.82, 1.831.85, 1.92

weegh - n: 'wedge-shaped wheatbread' 1.12

weet, weets - 1. n, cooking fat: 'fat' 1.20, 1.35 weet vander soepe - The fat that floats on the cooled broth. 1.36 honderweet - 'chicken fat' 1.60 weet van sueter romen - 'fat of fresh cream' Cream is fat that floats on fresh milk. I presume that "fat of fresh cream" is even fatter than cream, maybe obtained by skimming the cream? 1.84 2. weet- adj: 'fat' 1.62

wel, vel, weel, vael, wael - adv: 'well' 'thoroughly'

welle - n: 'skin' 1.60

welthonderen - velthoenderen

wenkel - zie venkel

wenkel tart, wenkl tart - n, dish: 'fennel pie' 1.87

werken wlees - vercken vlees

werkens - 'of a pig' 1.71

werven, weruen, werf - verwen

weycken, weyken, wycken, ghweyckt, ghewickt - vb: 'to steep' 1.9, 1.12, 1.13, 1.24, 1.27, 1.38, 1.41, 1.42a, 1.42b, 1.54

wier, wiire - vier

wirdelpons - virdelpont

wirendel - virendel

wles(...) - vles(...)

wogh, weegh- n: 'wheat bread' 1.10, 1.20

wolle, woel, wole, woelle, woller- adj: 'many', 'a lot of'

wool - adj: 'full' 1.91

wore - vore

[worme], wormen (pl) - n: 'form', 'appearance' 1.78

worse, worsser - verssen

wretse - 'fry them' From "friten" = to fry? GV XIV.15 reads "frijtse".  1.66 

wronghel - n: 'curd' 1.76

wrijften - 'grind it' 1.70

wure - n: 1. vier 'fire' 1.22 line 8 2. 'hour' , 1.22 line12     

wijer - n: 1. 'hour' 1.63 2. vier 'fire'

wijlle, wijlen- n: ''while', 'time', 'hour' 1.10, 1.18, 1.21

wijlt - vullen

wijltbraet, wijltbrat - n, meat: 'roast game' 1.36, 1.38

wijn, wijne- n, liquid: 'wine' (passim) roden wijn- 'red wine' 1.14, 1.20, 1.21, 1.25, 1.54 wijt wijn - 'white wine' 1.25 soet wijtten wijns - 'sweet white wine' 1.74 sueter wijn - 'sweet wine' 1.85 wijn exs, wijneck - 'wine vinegar' 1.43, 1.551.56

wijngart krammen - n: * ''vine shoots' (V.CI bij GV XVI.22, p.228) 1.55

wijngheren (pl)- n: 'fingers' 1.64

wijngher gat - n: 'finger hole' ?A hole the width of a finger in the rim of a dish to hold it? 1.68

wijnter - n, season: 'winter' 1.8, 1.37

wijr - vier

wijrick - n: 'incense'  1.56

wijs - visch

wijsdach - n: 'fish day' A day on which one was allowed to eat fish and diary products, but not meat. V.vasten. 1.66, 1.67 

wijsel - n, kitchenware: 'mortar' 1.25

wijt 1.  wijt, wijtten, vijt - adj: 'white' 2. wijt, uijt - adv/prep: 'out'  1.64  mackse wijt - 'finish it' 1.34 3. wijt, wijtte, wijtten, wytte - n: 'white' of an egg 1.711.731.761.86 ruuen wytte - 'raw egg white' 

wijt loken - vb: 'to drain' 1.76

wijt sparen (wijt ghesparden)- vb: 'to spread out' 1.74

wijtter - 'out of the' 1.52